This option helps locating the objects that introduce potentially unbounded stack requirements.
https://docs.adacore.com/live/wave/gnatstack/html/gnatstack_ug/Getting_Started_with_GNATstack.html
-fdump-analyzer-feasibility
The option -fdump-analyzer-json will dump both the supergraph and the exploded graph in compressed JSON form.
This json file is graph data with nodes and edgesgraph.c: pp_string (pp, "digraph \"");
graphite-scop-detection.c: fprintf (file, "digraph all {\n");
sched-rgn.c: fprintf (f, "digraph Region_%d {\n", rgn);
sched-rgn.c: pp_printf (&pp, "digraph SchedDG {\n");
selftest-run-tests.c: digraph_cc_tests ();
sel-sched-dump.c: fprintf (f, "digraph G {\n"
symtab.c: fprintf (f, "digraph symtab {\n");
tree-loop-distribution.c: fprintf (file, "digraph RDG {\n");
tree-ssa-structalias.c: fprintf (file, "strict digraph {\n");
tree-ssa-structalias.c: fprintf (file, "strict digraph {\n");
ddg.c: fprintf (file, "graph: {\n");
toplev.c: "graph: { title: \"%s\"\n", main_input_filename);
I also tried to benchmark the following C compilers:
For a list of pre-built images, see ahuszagh/cross
and ahuszagh/pkgcross.
There are languages generating c like https://nim-lang.org/ nim
or ravi https://github.com/dibyendumajumdar/ravi
or pl0 https://briancallahan.net/blog/20210818.html
gcc produces the textual forms of the following intermediate representations of a program being compiled. Refer to info gcc corresponding to version 4.0.1 for details.
The <target>.md file has a Lisp-like syntax. To get a feel of the syntax, we take a quick look at a concrete RTL statement in $GCCHOME/gcc/config/mips/mips.md file.
(define_insn "addsi3_internal" [(set (match_operand:SI 0 "register_operand" "=d,d") (plus:SI (match_operand:SI 1 "reg_or_0_operand" "dJ,dJ") (match_operand:SI 2 "arith_operand" "d,Q")))] "!TARGET_MIPS16" "@ addu\t%0,%z1,%2 addiu\t%0,%z1,%2" [(set_attr "type" "arith") (set_attr "mode" "SI")])
The basic structure of a define_insn in MD is:
(define_insn KEY (also called NAME) RTL TEMPLATE C CONDITION ASM OPTIONAL ATTRIBUTES SPECIFICATION )
Table (1)
details the correspondence between the general structure and the
concrete example above.
There are constructs other than define_insn in the
<target>.md file, for instance define_attributes
lists target attributes that are used in a define_insn.
You can request to dump a C-like representation of the GIMPLE form
with the flag -fdump-tree-gimple.
https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gccint/GIMPLE.html
The gcc routines use math routines with known errors documented
here
https://www.gnu.org/software/libc/manual/html_node/Errors-in-Math-Functions.html
This lib is solution for correct rounded results on math at
https://github.com/rutgers-apl/rlibm-32
For 16bit floats this libm
https://github.com/rutgers-apl/rlibm
Here are some excerpts from the final drafts of the C99 and C11 standards n1256.pdf and n1570.pdf, respectively.
§3.4.0: behavior: external appearance or action
§3.4.1: implementation-defined behavior: unspecified behavior where each implementation documents how the choice is made.
EXAMPLE: An example of implementation-defined behavior is the propagation of the high-order bit when a signed integer is shifted right.
§3.4.2: locale-specific behavior: behavior that depends on local conventions of nationality, culture, and language that each implementation documents.
EXAMPLE: An example of locale-specific behavior is whether
the islower
function returns true for characters
other than the 26 lowercase Latin letters.
§3.4.3: undefined behavior: behavior, upon use of a nonportable or erroneous program construct or of erroneous data, for which this International Standard imposes no requirements.
NOTE: Possible undefined behavior ranges from ignoring the situation completely with unpredictable results, to behaving during translation or program execution in a documented manner characteristic of the environment (with or without the issuance of a diagnostic message), to terminating a translation or execution (with the issuance of a diagnostic message).
EXAMPLE: An example of undefined behavior is the behavior on integer overflow.
§3.4.4: unspecified behavior: use of an unspecified value, or other behavior where this International Standard provides two or more possibilities and imposes no further requirements on which is chosen in any instance.
EXAMPLE: An example of unspecified behavior is the order in which the arguments to a function are evaluated.
a = (a == 0 ? 0 : 1);
is the same as
a = !!a;
the gcc compiler started at mit and current compiler group is at
https://groups.csail.mit.edu/commit/
They have the graphit project at
https://graphit-lang.org/
that uses a graph format in readher.h at
https://github.com/GraphIt-DSL/graphit
https://github.com/sbeamer/gapbs
this is a free compiler course with good theory
https://learn.saylor.org/course/view.php?id=74
examples in C on wikipedia/* GNU/Linux splay tree test program based on oct 2021 gcc version
* this may use all ram and disk swap then the programs stops but GNU/Linux does not crash or crashe other programs
* https://gcc.gnu.org/git/?p=gcc.git;a=blob;f=libiberty/splay-tree.c;h=7c8973c63c8fead8e1363f4f42a5f686fb16ac8c;hb=HEAD
* int stack_ptr in foreach() allows only splay tree with max size of 2G, should be size_t
* splay_tree_xmalloc_allocate(int size, void *data ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED) should use size_t size
* 1000*1000*280 are 280 million splay tree nodes hits already a limit
* splay_tree_foreach() is the gcc original
* splay_tree_foreach2() is the memory saving version
* splay_tree_foreach3() does not use realloc()
* used compiler settings from airbus aerospace
* see https://github.com/airbus-seclab/c-compiler-security
* AIRBUS_GCC_COMPILER_WARNING="$CFLAGS -O2 -Wall -Wextra -Wpedantic -Wformat=2 -Wformat-overflow=2 -Wformat-truncation=2 -Wformat-security -Wnull-dereference -Wstack-protector -Wtrampolines -Walloca -Wvla -Warray-bounds=2 -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 -Wshift-overflow=2 -Wcast-qual -Wstringop-overflow=4 -Wconversion -Warith-conversion -Wlogical-op -Wduplicated-cond -Wduplicated-branches -Wformat-signedness -Wshadow -Wstrict-overflow=4 -Wundef -Wstrict-prototypes -Wswitch-default -Wswitch-enum -Wstack-usage=1000000 -Wcast-align=strict -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fstack-protector-strong -fstack-clash-protection -fPIE -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now -Wl,-z,noexecstack -Wl,-z,separate-code"
* ./spt
* testing old splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 10 tree nodes stack used max 100 entries using 0 megabyte 800 bytes 0 realloc()'s
* testing old splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 1000 tree nodes stack used max 1600 entries using 0 megabyte 12800 bytes 4 realloc()'s
* testing new splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 1000 tree nodes stack used max 1000 entries using 0 megabyte 8000 bytes 1 realloc()'s saved 0 Mb
* testing old splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 100000000 tree nodes stack used max 104857600 entries using 800 megabyte 838860800 bytes 20 realloc()'s
* testing new splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 100000000 tree nodes stack used max 100000000 entries using 762 megabyte 800000000 bytes 1 realloc()'s saved 37 Mb
* testing old splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 280000000 tree nodes stack used max 419430400 entries using 3200 megabyte 3355443200 bytes 22 realloc()'s
* testing new splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 280000000 tree nodes stack used max 280000000 entries using 2136 megabyte 2240000000 bytes 1 realloc()'s saved 1063 Mb
* testing splay_tree_foreach() without realloc()
* splay_tree_foreach3(): splay tree has 3000000 nodes
* status=0 3000000 tree nodes stack used max 3000000 entries using 22 megabyte 24000000 bytes 0 realloc()'s
* On debian Linux the limit is 280 million splay tree nodes
* at more the program stops and is killed by some security software on debian Linux
* testing old splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 350000000 tree nodes stack used max 419430400 entries using 3200 megabyte 3355443200 bytes 22 realloc()'s
* testing new splay_tree_foreach()
* status=0 350000000 tree nodes stack used max 350000000 entries using 2670 megabyte 2800000000 bytes 1 realloc()'s saved 529 Mb
* On Fedora Linux the limit is 350 million splay tree nodes
* at more the Fedora desktop causes a logout and the program stops
* at using only the splay_tree_foreach2() ith less memory consumption
* testing new splay_tree_foreach() with maximum test machine limit
* status=0 370000000 tree nodes stack used max 370000000 entries using 2822 megabyte 2960000000 bytes 1 realloc()'s
* At more all ram and all disk swap space is used on the test computer.
* Now try this on WSL
*/
/* A splay-tree datatype.
Copyright (C) 1998-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Contributed by Mark Mitchell (mark@markmitchell.com).
This file is part of GNU CC.
GNU CC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
any later version.
GNU CC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU CC; see the file COPYING. If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, 51 Franklin Street - Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA. */
/* For an easily readable description of splay-trees, see:
Lewis, Harry R. and Denenberg, Larry. Data Structures and Their
Algorithms. Harper-Collins, Inc. 1991. */
/*
SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0+
*/
/* orig
#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include "config.h"
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_STDLIB_H
#include <stdlib.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_STRING_H
#include <string.h>
#endif
#include <stdio.h>
#include "libiberty.h"
#include "splay-tree.h"
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
/* needed for type unintptr_t or use long long int */
#include <stdint.h>
#define ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED /**/
/* how many stack entries used max 4 Giga */
static unsigned int maxstack = 0;
/* how many realloc() done */
static int nrealloc = 0;
/* Use typedefs for the key and data types to facilitate changing
these types, if necessary. These types should be sufficiently wide
that any pointer or scalar can be cast to these types, and then
cast back, without loss of precision. */
typedef uintptr_t splay_tree_key; /* 64bits unsigned int */
typedef uintptr_t splay_tree_value;
/* Forward declaration for a node in the tree. */
typedef struct splay_tree_node_s *splay_tree_node;
/* The type of a function which compares two splay-tree keys. The
function should return values as for qsort. */
typedef int (*splay_tree_compare_fn)(splay_tree_key, splay_tree_key);
/* The type of a function used to deallocate any resources associated
with the key. If you provide this function, the splay tree
will take the ownership of the memory of the splay_tree_key arg
of splay_tree_insert. This function is called to release the keys
present in the tree when calling splay_tree_delete or splay_tree_remove.
If splay_tree_insert is called with a key equal to a key already
present in the tree, the old key and old value will be released. */
typedef void (*splay_tree_delete_key_fn)(splay_tree_key);
/* The type of a function used to deallocate any resources associated
with the value. If you provide this function, the memory of the
splay_tree_value arg of splay_tree_insert is managed similarly to
the splay_tree_key memory: see splay_tree_delete_key_fn. */
typedef void (*splay_tree_delete_value_fn)(splay_tree_value);
/* The type of a function used to iterate over the tree. */
typedef int (*splay_tree_foreach_fn)(splay_tree_node, void *);
/* The type of a function used to allocate memory for tree root and
node structures. The first argument is the number of bytes needed;
the second is a data pointer the splay tree functions pass through
to the allocator. This function must never return zero. */
/* old typedef void *(*splay_tree_allocate_fn)(int, void *); */
typedef void *(*splay_tree_allocate_fn)(size_t, void *);
/* The type of a function used to free memory allocated using the
corresponding splay_tree_allocate_fn. The first argument is the
memory to be freed; the latter is a data pointer the splay tree
functions pass through to the freer. */
typedef void (*splay_tree_deallocate_fn)(void *, void *);
/* The nodes in the splay tree. */
struct splay_tree_node_s {
/* The key. */
splay_tree_key key;
/* The value. */
splay_tree_value value;
/* The left and right children, respectively. */
splay_tree_node left;
splay_tree_node right;
};
/* The splay tree itself. */
struct splay_tree_s {
/* The root of the tree. */
splay_tree_node root;
/* The comparision function. */
splay_tree_compare_fn comp;
/* The deallocate-key function. NULL if no cleanup is necessary. */
splay_tree_delete_key_fn delete_key;
/* The deallocate-value function. NULL if no cleanup is necessary. */
splay_tree_delete_value_fn delete_value;
/* Node allocate function. Takes allocate_data as a parameter. */
splay_tree_allocate_fn allocate;
/* Free function for nodes and trees. Takes allocate_data as a parameter. */
splay_tree_deallocate_fn deallocate;
/* Parameter for allocate/free functions. */
void *allocate_data;
};
typedef struct splay_tree_s *splay_tree;
/* these routines are here */
extern splay_tree splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_fn, splay_tree_delete_key_fn, splay_tree_delete_value_fn);
extern splay_tree splay_tree_new_with_allocator(splay_tree_compare_fn,
splay_tree_delete_key_fn,
splay_tree_delete_value_fn,
splay_tree_allocate_fn, splay_tree_deallocate_fn, void *);
extern splay_tree splay_tree_new_typed_alloc(splay_tree_compare_fn,
splay_tree_delete_key_fn,
splay_tree_delete_value_fn,
splay_tree_allocate_fn, splay_tree_allocate_fn, splay_tree_deallocate_fn, void *);
extern void splay_tree_delete(splay_tree);
extern splay_tree_node splay_tree_insert(splay_tree, splay_tree_key, splay_tree_value);
extern void splay_tree_remove(splay_tree, splay_tree_key);
extern splay_tree_node splay_tree_lookup(splay_tree, splay_tree_key);
extern splay_tree_node splay_tree_predecessor(splay_tree, splay_tree_key);
extern splay_tree_node splay_tree_successor(splay_tree, splay_tree_key);
extern splay_tree_node splay_tree_max(splay_tree);
extern splay_tree_node splay_tree_min(splay_tree);
extern int splay_tree_foreach(splay_tree, splay_tree_foreach_fn, void *);
extern int splay_tree_compare_ints(splay_tree_key, splay_tree_key);
extern int splay_tree_compare_pointers(splay_tree_key, splay_tree_key);
extern int splay_tree_compare_strings(splay_tree_key, splay_tree_key);
extern void splay_tree_delete_pointers(splay_tree_value);
/* old static void *splay_tree_xmalloc_allocate(int size, void *data ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED); */
static void *splay_tree_xmalloc_allocate(size_t size, void *data ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED);
static void splay_tree_xmalloc_deallocate(void *object, void *data ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED);
/* liberty.h Array allocators. */
#define XALLOCAVEC(T, N) ((T *) alloca (sizeof (T) * (N)))
#define XNEWVEC(T, N) ((T *) xmalloc (sizeof (T) * (N)))
#define XCNEWVEC(T, N) ((T *) xcalloc ((N), sizeof (T)))
#define XDUPVEC(T, P, N) ((T *) xmemdup ((P), sizeof (T) * (N), sizeof (T) * (N)))
#define XRESIZEVEC(T, P, N) ((T *) xrealloc ((void *) (P), sizeof (T) * (N)))
#define XDELETEVEC(P) free ((void*) (P))
/* xmalloc substitute */
#define xmalloc(x) calloc((size_t)1,x)
#define xrealloc(p,n) realloc(p,n)
static void splay_tree_delete_helper(splay_tree, splay_tree_node);
static inline void rotate_left(splay_tree_node *, splay_tree_node, splay_tree_node);
static inline void rotate_right(splay_tree_node *, splay_tree_node, splay_tree_node);
static void splay_tree_splay(splay_tree, splay_tree_key);
static int splay_tree_foreach_helper(splay_tree_node, splay_tree_foreach_fn, void *);
/* Deallocate NODE (a member of SP), and all its sub-trees. */
static void splay_tree_delete_helper(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_node node)
{
splay_tree_node pending = 0;
splay_tree_node active = 0;
if (!node)
return;
#define KDEL(x) if (sp->delete_key) (*sp->delete_key)(x);
#define VDEL(x) if (sp->delete_value) (*sp->delete_value)(x);
KDEL(node->key);
VDEL(node->value);
/* We use the "key" field to hold the "next" pointer. */
node->key = (splay_tree_key) pending;
pending = (splay_tree_node) node;
/* Now, keep processing the pending list until there aren't any
more. This is a little more complicated than just recursing, but
it doesn't toast the stack for large trees. */
while (pending) {
active = pending;
pending = 0;
while (active) {
splay_tree_node temp;
/* active points to a node which has its key and value
deallocated, we just need to process left and right. */
if (active->left) {
KDEL(active->left->key);
VDEL(active->left->value);
active->left->key = (splay_tree_key) pending;
pending = (splay_tree_node) (active->left);
}
if (active->right) {
KDEL(active->right->key);
VDEL(active->right->value);
active->right->key = (splay_tree_key) pending;
pending = (splay_tree_node) (active->right);
}
temp = active;
active = (splay_tree_node) (temp->key);
(*sp->deallocate) ((char *)temp, sp->allocate_data);
}
}
#undef KDEL
#undef VDEL
}
/* Rotate the edge joining the left child N with its parent P. PP is the
grandparents' pointer to P. */
static inline void rotate_left(splay_tree_node * pp, splay_tree_node p, splay_tree_node n)
{
splay_tree_node tmp;
tmp = n->right;
n->right = p;
p->left = tmp;
*pp = n;
}
/* Rotate the edge joining the right child N with its parent P. PP is the
grandparents' pointer to P. */
static inline void rotate_right(splay_tree_node * pp, splay_tree_node p, splay_tree_node n)
{
splay_tree_node tmp;
tmp = n->left;
n->left = p;
p->right = tmp;
*pp = n;
}
/* Bottom up splay of key. */
static void splay_tree_splay(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_key key)
{
if (sp->root == 0)
return;
do {
int cmp1, cmp2;
splay_tree_node n, c;
n = sp->root;
cmp1 = (*sp->comp) (key, n->key);
/* Found. */
if (cmp1 == 0)
return;
/* Left or right? If no child, then we're done. */
if (cmp1 < 0)
c = n->left;
else
c = n->right;
if (!c)
return;
/* Next one left or right? If found or no child, we're done
after one rotation. */
cmp2 = (*sp->comp) (key, c->key);
if (cmp2 == 0 || (cmp2 < 0 && !c->left) || (cmp2 > 0 && !c->right)) {
if (cmp1 < 0)
rotate_left(&sp->root, n, c);
else
rotate_right(&sp->root, n, c);
return;
}
/* Now we have the four cases of double-rotation. */
if (cmp1 < 0 && cmp2 < 0) {
rotate_left(&n->left, c, c->left);
rotate_left(&sp->root, n, n->left);
} else if (cmp1 > 0 && cmp2 > 0) {
rotate_right(&n->right, c, c->right);
rotate_right(&sp->root, n, n->right);
} else if (cmp1 < 0 && cmp2 > 0) {
rotate_right(&n->left, c, c->right);
rotate_left(&sp->root, n, n->left);
} else if (cmp1 > 0 && cmp2 < 0) {
rotate_left(&n->right, c, c->left);
rotate_right(&sp->root, n, n->right);
}
}
while (1);
}
/* Call FN, passing it the DATA, for every node below NODE, all of
which are from SP, following an in-order traversal. If FN every
returns a non-zero value, the iteration ceases immediately, and the
value is returned. Otherwise, this function returns 0. */
static int splay_tree_foreach_helper(splay_tree_node node, splay_tree_foreach_fn fn, void *data)
{
int val;
splay_tree_node *stack;
int stack_ptr, stack_size;
/* A non-recursive implementation is used to avoid filling the stack
for large trees. Splay trees are worst case O(n) in the depth of
the tree. */
#define INITIAL_STACK_SIZE 100
stack_size = INITIAL_STACK_SIZE;
stack_ptr = 0;
stack = XNEWVEC(splay_tree_node, (long unsigned int)stack_size);
val = 0;
for (;;) {
/* added */
if ((unsigned int)stack_size > maxstack) {
maxstack = (unsigned int)stack_size;
}
while (node != NULL) {
if (stack_ptr == stack_size) {
stack_size *= 2;
stack = XRESIZEVEC(splay_tree_node, stack, (long unsigned int)stack_size);
/* how many realloc()'s */
nrealloc++;
}
stack[stack_ptr++] = node;
node = node->left;
}
if (stack_ptr == 0)
break;
node = stack[--stack_ptr];
val = (*fn) (node, data);
if (val)
break;
node = node->right;
}
XDELETEVEC(stack);
return val;
}
/* Call FN, passing it the DATA, for every node below NODE, all of
which are from SP, following an in-order traversal. If FN every
returns a non-zero value, the iteration ceases immediately, and the
value is returned. Otherwise, this function returns 0. */
/* modified */
static int splay_tree_foreach_helper2(splay_tree_node node, splay_tree_foreach_fn fn, void *data)
{
int val;
splay_tree_node *stack;
splay_tree_node sn;
int stack_ptr, stack_size; /* this allows only 2G entries */
/* A non-recursive implementation is used to avoid filling the stack
for large trees. Splay trees are worst case O(n) in the depth of
the tree. */
#define INITIAL_STACK_SIZE 100
stack_size = INITIAL_STACK_SIZE;
stack_ptr = 0;
stack = XNEWVEC(splay_tree_node, (long unsigned int)stack_size);
val = 0;
for (;;) {
/* added */
if ((unsigned int)stack_size > maxstack) {
maxstack = (unsigned int)stack_size;
}
sn = node; /* save copy */
val = 0;
/* count how many */
while (node != NULL) {
val++;
node = node->left;
}
if (val) {
if (val > stack_size) {
stack_size = val;
if ((unsigned int)stack_size > maxstack) {
maxstack = (unsigned int)stack_size;
}
/* allocate exact as much as needed */
stack = XRESIZEVEC(splay_tree_node, stack, (long unsigned int)stack_size);
/* how many realloc()'s */
nrealloc++;
}
}
/* copy the pointers */
while (sn != NULL) {
stack[stack_ptr++] = sn;
sn = sn->left;
}
if (stack_ptr == 0)
break;
node = stack[--stack_ptr];
val = (*fn) (node, data);
if (val)
break;
node = node->right;
}
XDELETEVEC(stack);
return val;
}
/* Call FN, passing it the DATA, for every node below NODE, all of
which are from SP, following an in-order traversal. If FN every
returns a non-zero value, the iteration ceases immediately, and the
value is returned. Otherwise, this function returns 0. */
/* modified does not use realloc() in XRESIZEVEC() */
static int splay_tree_foreach_helper3(splay_tree_node node, splay_tree_foreach_fn fn, void *data, unsigned int count)
{
int val;
splay_tree_node *stack;
unsigned int stack_ptr = 0;
unsigned int stack_size = 0; /* this allows only 4G entries */
/* A non-recursive implementation is used to avoid filling the stack
for large trees. Splay trees are worst case O(n) in the depth of
the tree. */
stack_size = count;
stack_ptr = 0;
stack = XNEWVEC(splay_tree_node, (long unsigned int)stack_size);
val = 0;
for (;;) {
/* added */
if (stack_size > maxstack) {
maxstack = stack_size;
}
/* copy the pointers */
while (node != NULL) {
stack[stack_ptr++] = node;
node = node->left;
}
if (stack_ptr == 0)
break;
node = stack[--stack_ptr];
val = (*fn) (node, data);
if (val)
break;
node = node->right;
}
XDELETEVEC(stack);
return val;
}
/* An allocator and deallocator based on xmalloc. */
static void *splay_tree_xmalloc_allocate(size_t size, void *data ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
{
if (data) { /* not used */
}
return (void *)xmalloc((size_t)size);
}
static void splay_tree_xmalloc_deallocate(void *object, void *data ATTRIBUTE_UNUSED)
{
if (object) {
free(object);
}
if (data) { /* not used */
}
}
/* Allocate a new splay tree, using COMPARE_FN to compare nodes,
DELETE_KEY_FN to deallocate keys, and DELETE_VALUE_FN to deallocate
values. Use xmalloc to allocate the splay tree structure, and any
nodes added. */
splay_tree
splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_fn compare_fn, splay_tree_delete_key_fn delete_key_fn, splay_tree_delete_value_fn delete_value_fn)
{
return (splay_tree_new_with_allocator
(compare_fn, delete_key_fn, delete_value_fn, splay_tree_xmalloc_allocate, splay_tree_xmalloc_deallocate, 0));
}
/* Allocate a new splay tree, using COMPARE_FN to compare nodes,
DELETE_KEY_FN to deallocate keys, and DELETE_VALUE_FN to deallocate
values. */
splay_tree
splay_tree_new_with_allocator(splay_tree_compare_fn compare_fn,
splay_tree_delete_key_fn delete_key_fn,
splay_tree_delete_value_fn delete_value_fn,
splay_tree_allocate_fn allocate_fn, splay_tree_deallocate_fn deallocate_fn, void *allocate_data)
{
return
splay_tree_new_typed_alloc(compare_fn, delete_key_fn, delete_value_fn,
allocate_fn, allocate_fn, deallocate_fn, allocate_data);
}
/*
@deftypefn Supplemental splay_tree splay_tree_new_with_typed_alloc @
(splay_tree_compare_fn @var{compare_fn}, @
splay_tree_delete_key_fn @var{delete_key_fn}, @
splay_tree_delete_value_fn @var{delete_value_fn}, @
splay_tree_allocate_fn @var{tree_allocate_fn}, @
splay_tree_allocate_fn @var{node_allocate_fn}, @
splay_tree_deallocate_fn @var{deallocate_fn}, @
void * @var{allocate_data})
This function creates a splay tree that uses two different allocators
@var{tree_allocate_fn} and @var{node_allocate_fn} to use for allocating the
tree itself and its nodes respectively. This is useful when variables of
different types need to be allocated with different allocators.
The splay tree will use @var{compare_fn} to compare nodes,
@var{delete_key_fn} to deallocate keys, and @var{delete_value_fn} to
deallocate values. Keys and values will be deallocated when the
tree is deleted using splay_tree_delete or when a node is removed
using splay_tree_remove. splay_tree_insert will release the previously
inserted key and value using @var{delete_key_fn} and @var{delete_value_fn}
if the inserted key is already found in the tree.
@end deftypefn
*/
splay_tree
splay_tree_new_typed_alloc(splay_tree_compare_fn compare_fn,
splay_tree_delete_key_fn delete_key_fn,
splay_tree_delete_value_fn delete_value_fn,
splay_tree_allocate_fn tree_allocate_fn,
splay_tree_allocate_fn node_allocate_fn, splay_tree_deallocate_fn deallocate_fn, void *allocate_data)
{
splay_tree sp = (splay_tree) (*tree_allocate_fn)
(sizeof(struct splay_tree_s), allocate_data);
sp->root = 0;
sp->comp = compare_fn;
sp->delete_key = delete_key_fn;
sp->delete_value = delete_value_fn;
sp->allocate = node_allocate_fn;
sp->deallocate = deallocate_fn;
sp->allocate_data = allocate_data;
return sp;
}
/* Deallocate SP. */
void splay_tree_delete(splay_tree sp)
{
splay_tree_delete_helper(sp, sp->root);
(*sp->deallocate) ((char *)sp, sp->allocate_data);
}
/* Insert a new node (associating KEY with DATA) into SP. If a
previous node with the indicated KEY exists, its data is replaced
with the new value. Returns the new node. */
splay_tree_node splay_tree_insert(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_key key, splay_tree_value value)
{
int comparison = 0;
splay_tree_splay(sp, key);
if (sp->root)
comparison = (*sp->comp) (sp->root->key, key);
if (sp->root && comparison == 0) {
/* If the root of the tree already has the indicated KEY, delete
the old key and old value, and replace them with KEY and VALUE. */
if (sp->delete_key)
(*sp->delete_key) (sp->root->key);
if (sp->delete_value)
(*sp->delete_value) (sp->root->value);
sp->root->key = key;
sp->root->value = value;
} else {
/* Create a new node, and insert it at the root. */
splay_tree_node node;
node = ((splay_tree_node)
(*sp->allocate) (sizeof(struct splay_tree_node_s), sp->allocate_data));
node->key = key;
node->value = value;
if (!sp->root)
node->left = node->right = 0;
else if (comparison < 0) {
node->left = sp->root;
node->right = node->left->right;
node->left->right = 0;
} else {
node->right = sp->root;
node->left = node->right->left;
node->right->left = 0;
}
sp->root = node;
}
return sp->root;
}
/* Remove KEY from SP. It is not an error if it did not exist. */
void splay_tree_remove(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_key key)
{
splay_tree_splay(sp, key);
if (sp->root && (*sp->comp) (sp->root->key, key) == 0) {
splay_tree_node left, right;
left = sp->root->left;
right = sp->root->right;
/* Delete the root node itself. */
if (sp->delete_key)
(*sp->delete_key) (sp->root->key);
if (sp->delete_value)
(*sp->delete_value) (sp->root->value);
(*sp->deallocate) (sp->root, sp->allocate_data);
/* One of the children is now the root. Doesn't matter much
which, so long as we preserve the properties of the tree. */
if (left) {
sp->root = left;
/* If there was a right child as well, hang it off the
right-most leaf of the left child. */
if (right) {
while (left->right)
left = left->right;
left->right = right;
}
} else
sp->root = right;
}
}
/* Lookup KEY in SP, returning VALUE if present, and NULL
otherwise. */
splay_tree_node splay_tree_lookup(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_key key)
{
splay_tree_splay(sp, key);
if (sp->root && (*sp->comp) (sp->root->key, key) == 0)
return sp->root;
else
return 0;
}
/* Return the node in SP with the greatest key. */
splay_tree_node splay_tree_max(splay_tree sp)
{
splay_tree_node n = sp->root;
if (!n)
return NULL;
while (n->right)
n = n->right;
return n;
}
/* Return the node in SP with the smallest key. */
splay_tree_node splay_tree_min(splay_tree sp)
{
splay_tree_node n = sp->root;
if (!n)
return NULL;
while (n->left)
n = n->left;
return n;
}
/* Return the immediate predecessor KEY, or NULL if there is no
predecessor. KEY need not be present in the tree. */
splay_tree_node splay_tree_predecessor(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_key key)
{
int comparison;
splay_tree_node node;
/* If the tree is empty, there is certainly no predecessor. */
if (!sp->root)
return NULL;
/* Splay the tree around KEY. That will leave either the KEY
itself, its predecessor, or its successor at the root. */
splay_tree_splay(sp, key);
comparison = (*sp->comp) (sp->root->key, key);
/* If the predecessor is at the root, just return it. */
if (comparison < 0)
return sp->root;
/* Otherwise, find the rightmost element of the left subtree. */
node = sp->root->left;
if (node)
while (node->right)
node = node->right;
return node;
}
/* Return the immediate successor KEY, or NULL if there is no
successor. KEY need not be present in the tree. */
splay_tree_node splay_tree_successor(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_key key)
{
int comparison;
splay_tree_node node;
/* If the tree is empty, there is certainly no successor. */
if (!sp->root)
return NULL;
/* Splay the tree around KEY. That will leave either the KEY
itself, its predecessor, or its successor at the root. */
splay_tree_splay(sp, key);
comparison = (*sp->comp) (sp->root->key, key);
/* If the successor is at the root, just return it. */
if (comparison > 0)
return sp->root;
/* Otherwise, find the leftmost element of the right subtree. */
node = sp->root->right;
if (node)
while (node->left)
node = node->left;
return node;
}
/* Call FN, passing it the DATA, for every node in SP, following an
in-order traversal. If FN every returns a non-zero value, the
iteration ceases immediately, and the value is returned.
Otherwise, this function returns 0. */
int splay_tree_foreach(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_foreach_fn fn, void *data)
{
return splay_tree_foreach_helper(sp->root, fn, data);
}
/* other way */
int splay_tree_foreach2(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_foreach_fn fn, void *data)
{
return splay_tree_foreach_helper2(sp->root, fn, data);
}
/* other way does not use realloc() */
int splay_tree_foreach3(splay_tree sp, splay_tree_foreach_fn fn, void *data)
{
splay_tree_node spn;
splay_tree_key key;
unsigned int count = 0; /* allows 4 Giga tree nodes */
if ((splay_tree) 0 == sp) {
/* no data */
return (0);
}
if (!sp->root) {
/* no data */
return (0);
}
/* this counting is very slow
* or splay tree should maintain the count
* of number of nodes in the splay tree
*/
spn = splay_tree_min(sp);
while (spn) {
key = (splay_tree_key) spn->key;
count++;
spn = splay_tree_successor(sp, key);
}
if (count == 0) {
/* no data */
}
printf("%s(): splay tree has %u nodes\n", __func__, count);
fflush(stdout);
return splay_tree_foreach_helper3(sp->root, fn, data, count);
}
/* Splay-tree comparison function, treating the keys as ints. */
int splay_tree_compare_ints(splay_tree_key k1, splay_tree_key k2)
{
if ((int)k1 < (int)k2)
return -1;
else if ((int)k1 > (int)k2)
return 1;
else
return 0;
}
/* Splay-tree comparison function, treating the keys as pointers. */
int splay_tree_compare_pointers(splay_tree_key k1, splay_tree_key k2)
{
if ((char *)k1 < (char *)k2)
return -1;
else if ((char *)k1 > (char *)k2)
return 1;
else
return 0;
}
/* Splay-tree comparison function, treating the keys as strings. */
int splay_tree_compare_strings(splay_tree_key k1, splay_tree_key k2)
{
return strcmp((char *)k1, (char *)k2);
}
/* Splay-tree delete function, simply using free. */
void splay_tree_delete_pointers(splay_tree_value value)
{
if (value) {
free((void *)value);
}
}
/* fn0 small splay tree The type of a function used to iterate over the tree. */
int fn0(splay_tree_node spn, void *data)
{
if (spn == (splay_tree_node) 0) {
/* sgould not happen */
return (1);
}
printf("%d ", (int)spn->key);
if (data) { /* not used */
}
/* return 0 to continue */
return (0);
}
/* fn1 bigger splay tree The type of a function used to iterate over the tree. */
int fn1(splay_tree_node spn, void *data)
{
if (spn == (splay_tree_node) 0) {
/* sgould not happen */
return (1);
}
if (((int)spn->key % 100) == 0) {
printf("%d \n", (int)spn->key);
}
if (data) { /* not used */
}
/* return 0 to continue */
return (0);
}
/* fn3 even bigger splay tree The type of a function used to iterate over the tree. */
int fn3(splay_tree_node spn, void *data)
{
if (spn == (splay_tree_node) 0) {
/* sgould not happen */
return (1);
}
if (data) { /* not used */
}
/* return 0 to continue */
return (0);
}
/* the test code */
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
splay_tree spt;
unsigned long long int n; /* 64bits */
unsigned long long int mb = 0; /* mem use in mb */
unsigned long long int mbs = 0; /* saved mem use in mb */
splay_tree_node spn;
int status = 0;
unsigned int v0 = 0;
unsigned int v1 = 0;
if (argc) {
}
if (argv) {
}
printf("testing old splay_tree_foreach()\n");
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create small splay tree does not use realloc() */
for (n = 0; n < 10; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn0, (void *)0 /* data */ );
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing old splay_tree_foreach()\n");
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigher splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn1, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v0 = maxstack;
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing new splay_tree_foreach()\n");
/* now same with other foreach */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach2((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn1, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v1 = maxstack;
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
/* how much mem saved */
mbs = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mbs = mbs * (v0 - v1);
mbs = mbs / 1024; /* kb */
mbs = mbs / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s saved %llu Mb\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc, mbs);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing old splay_tree_foreach()\n");
/* now going really big but not more the 2G nodes because that is too much but can be fixed */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000 * 1000 * 100; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn3, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v0 = maxstack;
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing new splay_tree_foreach()\n");
/* now going really big but not more the 2G nodes because that is too much but can be fixed */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000 * 1000 * 100; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach2((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn3, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v1 = maxstack;
/* how much mem saved */
mbs = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mbs = mbs * (v0 - v1);
mbs = mbs / 1024; /* kb */
mbs = mbs / 1024; /* mb */
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s saved %llu Mb\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc, mbs);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing old splay_tree_foreach()\n");
/* now going really big but not more the 2G nodes because that is too much but can be fixed */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000 * 1000 * 350; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn3, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v0 = maxstack;
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing new splay_tree_foreach()\n");
/* now going really big but not more the 2G nodes because that is too much but can be fixed */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000 * 1000 * 350; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach2((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn3, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v1 = maxstack;
/* how much mem saved */
mbs = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mbs = mbs * (v0 - v1);
mbs = mbs / 1024; /* kb */
mbs = mbs / 1024; /* mb */
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s saved %llu Mb\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc, mbs);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing splay_tree_foreach() without realloc()\n");
/* now going really big but not more the 2G nodes because that is too much but can be fixed */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree no realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000 * 3; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse */
status = splay_tree_foreach3((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn3, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v0 = maxstack;
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
printf("testing new splay_tree_foreach() with maximum test machine limit using all physical ram and all disk swap space\n");
/* now going really big but not more the 2G nodes because that is too much but can be fixed */
spt = splay_tree_new(splay_tree_compare_ints /* compare_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_key_fn) 0 /* delete_key_fn */ ,
(splay_tree_delete_value_fn) 0 /* delete_value_fn */
);
/* create bigger splay tree causes realloc */
for (n = 0; n < 1000 * 1000 * 370; n++) {
spn /* splay_tree_node */ =
splay_tree_insert((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_key) n, (splay_tree_value) 0);
if (!spn) { /* shouldnothappen */
}
}
/* how much stack used */
maxstack = 0;
nrealloc = 0;
/* traverse and do NOT waste memory */
status = splay_tree_foreach2((splay_tree) spt, (splay_tree_foreach_fn) fn3, (void *)0 /* data */ );
v0 = maxstack;
/* how much mem used */
mb = sizeof(splay_tree_node);
mb = mb * maxstack;
mb = mb / 1024; /* kb */
mb = mb / 1024; /* mb */
printf
("status=%d %llu tree nodes stack used max %u entries using %llu megabyte %lu bytes %d realloc()'s\n",
status, n, maxstack, mb, sizeof(splay_tree_node) * maxstack, nrealloc);
splay_tree_delete((splay_tree) spt);
return (0);
}
/* end. */